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Conversation 1 : How do you get to school?

- Měitiān
每天
zěnme
怎么
lái
jiàoshì
教室
shàng
kè?
课?
-
zǒu
zhe
lái.
来。
ne?
呢?
-
chē
lái.
来。
mǎi
le
liàng
zì xíng chē.
自行车。
怎么zěnme(pro)how
教室jiàoshì(n)classroom
zǒu(v)walk
zhe(part)(a verbal particle)
(v)ride
chē(n)vehicle
liàng(m)(a measure word for vehicle)
自行车zìxíngchē(n)bicycle
le(part)(a modal particle)

Translation

- How do you get to the classroom everyday for lessons?
- I walk. And you?
- I ride bike. I bought a bicycle.

Conversation 2 : Where did you go yesterday?

- Zuótiān
昨天
nǎr
哪儿
le?
了?
-
jìn
chéng
wánr
玩儿
le.
了。
-
shì
chē
de
ma?
吗?
- Bù,
不,
shì
zuò
chūzūchē
出租车
de.
的。
jìn(n)enter, go into
chéng(n)town, city
玩儿wánr(v)play, have fun
zuò(v)sit, travel by
出租chūzū(adj)rent
出租车chūzūchē(n)taxi

Translation

- Where did you go yesterday?
- I went to the city to have fun.
- Did you also ride your bike there?
- No, I took a cab.

Conversation 3 : Why didn't you take a public bus?

-
zěnme
怎么
zuò
gōnggòng
公共
qìchē
汽车
ya?
呀?
- Chēshàng
车上
rén
tài
duō,
多,
érqiě
而且
yòu
tài
màn.
慢。
-
kěyǐ
可以
zuò
dìtiě
地铁
huòzhě
或者
kāi
chē
ya?
呀?
- Nàr
那儿
méi
dìtiězhàn.
地铁站。
huì
kāi
chē.
车。
汽车qìchē(n)car, automobile
公共gōnggòng(adj)public
公共汽车gōnggòngqìchē(n)bus
车上chēshang(n)on the bus
而且érqiě(conj)and also
yòu(conj)and, again
地铁dìtiě(n)metro, subway
zhàn(n)station
或者huòzhě(conj)or
开车kāichē(v)drive (car)

Translation

- Why didn't you take a public bus?
- There are too many people on the bus, and also it's too slow.
- You could also go by metro(subway) or drive your car?
- There’s no metro station there. I don't know how to drive.

Conversation 4 : Will you take a plane or a train to Dalian?

-
zuò
fēijī
飞机
háishì
还是
zuò
huǒchē
火车
Dàlián?
大连?
-
dǎsuàn
打算
zuò
fēijī
飞机
qù,
去,
zuò
chuán
huílai.
回来。
飞机fēijī(n)plane
火车huǒchē(n)train
chuán(n)boat
回来huílai(v)return, go back

Translation

- Will you take a plane or a train to Dalian?
- I plan to go by plane and return by boat.

Grammar

Phrase structure

There is a kind of sentence in which the first verb modifies the manner of the action expressed by the second verb.
Examples:
- 我 汽车 教室。 ( I come to the classroom by bus. )
- 我 回来( I come back riding my bike )
- 他 ( He goes driving his car )

The verbal particle 了 after a verb

When the particle 了 (le) is added after a verb, it indicates that an action has already been taken.
Examples:
- 我 买 一 辆 自行车。( I bought a bicycle )
- 他 喝 两 杯 茶。( I drunk two cups of tea )

The modal particle 了 at the end of a sentence

When the particle 了 (le) is added at the end of a sentence, it indicates changed circumstances.
The negative form is made by putting 没 (méi) or 没有 (méiyǒu) before the verb and 了 is omitted.
Examples:
- 昨天 你 去 哪儿 了?( where did you go yesteday )
-     我 去 商店 了。 ( I've been to the shop )
-     我 没去 商店。 ( I haven't been to the shop )

Exercises : Substitution Drills

Exercise 1

-
zěnme
怎么
 
-
zìxíngchē
自行车
 
Verb 1NounVerb 2
zuò 汽车qìchē lái
kāi chē 回来huílái
zuò 火车huǒchē 回去huíqù

Exercise 2

-
zuò
fēijī
飞机
háishì
还是
zuò
huǒchē
火车
 
-
dǎsuàn
打算
zuò
fēijī
飞机
 
Noun 1Noun 2
地铁dìtiěmetro 电车diànchētram
火车huǒchētrain 汽车qìchēcar
飞机fēijīplane chuánboat
出租 汽车chūzū qìchētaxi 公共 汽车gōnggòng qìchēbus

Exercise 3

-
huì
kāichē
开车
ma?
吗?
-
huì
kāichē
开车
 
SubjectAction
开汽车kāi qìchē
你朋友nǐ péngyou 开汽车kāi qìchē
他爸爸tā bàba 开飞机kāi fēijī

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Grammar, Examples and Exercises.
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